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Europe

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November 2004
The Unbearable Lightness of Democracy: Poland and Romania after Communism
by Alina Mungiu-Pippidi
"Although the publics in Poland and Romania believe there are more similarities than differences in the quality of their lives after communism, external observers argue that Poland's democracy is qualitatively better than Romania's. The challenge is to explain why there is this difference when both countries are consolidated democracies inhabited by unsatisfied...democrats."

March 2004
Idealism and Power: The New EU Security Strategy
by Jean-Yves Haine
"The Iraqi crisis has forced the EU to acknowledge that, divided, the union is powerless. The EU's enlargement by 10 new members this May is also forcing it to acknowledge that a union of 450 million people cannot shut itself off from the rest of the world."

March 2004
The Lessons of Bosnia and Kosovo for Iraq
by John R. Lampe
"The experience in Bosnia and Kosovo provides encouragement. . . . The largest postintervention lesson they offer is that the United States and its international partners can work effectively together once they are on the ground together."

March 2004
The Tough Trials Ahead for the EU's Eastern Expansion
by David R. Cameron
"As considerable as the challenges of enlargement for the EU are, they pale in comparison to the challenges of accession facing the new members. . . . Taken together, they will make it exceptionally difficult for most if not all of the governments of the new member states to govern effectively and maintain public support."

March 2004
New Europe Meets the Euro
by Barry Eichengreen
"Adopting the euro will have costs for the so-called accession economies, but so would shunning the euro. In fact, there are compelling reasons to think that adopting the euro will be less costly than the other monetary options available to the countries of 'new' Europe."

March 2004
Beyond Old and New Europe
by Joshua B. Spero
"What today stands as a shining moment for Poland in NATO and Iraq may ultimately harm its far more vital role as a bridge between an increasingly independent Germany and an uncertain Russia. America's global-led war on terrorism might, paradoxically, unravel the key stabilizing country between west and east . . . ."

March 2004
In the Mirror of Europe: The Perils of American Nationalism
by Anatol Lieven
"One way of looking at the United States today is as a European state that has avoided the catastrophes nationalism brought upon Europe in the twentieth century, and whose nationalism therefore retains some of the power, intensity, bellicosity, and self-absorption that European nationalisms have had kicked out of them by history."

March 2003
Putting NATO Back Together Again
by Sean Kay
"NATO's new enlargement will further complicate the workings of an alliance that is already politically unmanageable, militarily dysfunctional, and strategically irrelevant."

March 2003
Climate Change Blues: Why the United States and Europe Just Can't Get Along
by Joshua W. Busby
"Although the dispute about climate change is overshadowed by the strain in European-American relations concerning war with Iraq, it may have been a factor in the growing level of distrust between the United States and Europe. Indeed, the dispute over global warming may mask a larger concern."

March 2003
The Islamist Challenge in Kosova
by Isa Blumi
"Even as Western societies worry about the 'rise of Islamic fundamentalism,' the international community's ill-conceived policies for Kosova's rural Muslim population may prove to be directly responsible for the production of Europe's own Taliban."

March 2003
Europe Enlarged, America Detached?
by Simon Serfaty
"September 11 should be a catalyst for a renewal of the West as a community of action that is shaped by interests that are common even when they are not always equally shared. What the West needs, and must seek in and beyond the EU and NATO-the two central institutions that comprise it-is more, not less, integration."

November 2001
Macedonia: Melting Pot or Meltdown?
by Duncan Perry
"Today the fate of this new country [remains unclear], but history has shown that the Macedonians are tenacious and will go down fighting--as will the Albanians, if it comes to that. But does it need to?"

November 2001
Kosova: From the Brink--and Back Again
by Isa Blumi
"It should be stressed (rather than ignored) that the conflicts in Kosova have much more to do with colonial exploitation, power politics, and economic greed than primordial hatreds manipulated by indicted war criminals."

November 2001
Croatia's Second Transition and the International Community
by Marina Ottaway and Gideon Maltz
"The international community should rethink the applicability in the short run of some of the high principles that guide its demands, and accept instead the basic lesson of democracy: democratic governments succeed and indeed only survive when they strike a compromise between what they should do ideally and what their constituencies demand."

November 2001
Europe's Eastern Enlargement: Who Benefits?
by John Hall and Wolfgang Quaisser
"The historical experience of the East European countries is to dance to the tunes played by regional powers to their west and to their east. Is this just one more round, with Brussels choreographing the show now, rather than Vienna, Berlin, or Moscow?"

November 2001
An Interview with Latvian President Vaira Vike-Freiberga
by Sean Patrick Murphy
As the european union begins to expand eastward, nato has announced that it will decide next year whether to expand into the former Soviet republics of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia. Earlier this year, Current History consulting editor Sean Patrick Murphy interviewed visiting Latvian President Vaira Vike-Freiberga in Washington, D.C. about Latvia's possible entry into nato and the implications for Latvia's relationship with Russia. An edited transcript of the interview follows.

March 2001
Building a "Normal Boring"Country Kostunica's Yugoslavia
by Eric D. Gordy
The fall of the Milosevic regime has much meaning in itself, and a strong desire to imagine a better future can be sensed everywhere. But nothing is assured unless the new government is able to make this desire concrete.

March 2001
Bosnia: The Democracy Paradox
by David Chandler
There is an alternative to the paradox of establishing new protectorate powers and more invasive international mandates to bring about democracy and self-government in Bosnia, an option never advocated by policy advisers from international institutions: allow people in the region greater autonomy to develop their own solutions.

March 2001
Bosnia's War Criminals: Getting Away with Murder
by International Crisis Group
Many of those accused of war crimes [in Bosnia] have successfully diverted the international community's attention from their wartime activities while maintaining significant influence in their local communities. An often-complacent international community and a politically cautious sfor aid them in this endeavor.

March 2001
Deadlocked Romania
by Marian Chiriac
Eleven years after the overthrow of communism, Romania is still searching for solutions to its deeper ills. It is a society in dire need of modernization, burdened with a backward political culture and a ruined economy. The challenge to the political class is how to overcome the patterns set by its predecessors, who introduced formal changes while failing to serve their constituent public.

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